After gaining Philippine independence from colonial rule after World War II in 1946, the Visayas region established its community and reformed its government, with several notable presidents emerging from the Visayas region. In 2005, the island of Palawan was transferred to Region VI (Western Visayas) by Presidential Decree 429. However, this planned reorganization has been suspended. Therefore, Palawan is currently (as of May 2007) part of Region IV-B. Culture Legends “Is it a challenge? Yes, in the same way, it was a challenge for me and other non-Tagalog speakers to learn English and Tagalog,” Daposala shared. “At that time, my secondary and elementary alma mater punished students from peso to cinco for speaking `vernacular`. So, if you don`t want to be a tourist or foreigner in your own country, read the literature of that particular ethnolinguistic group. Light folk pieces of political satire such as the fable “Piniliay sa mga Isda” (1916) by Andres Bello and social criticism such as “Kinabuhing Sugboanon” (1929) by Piux Kabahar were popular. Of another kind are the mostly occasional and non-sentimental works of the poets Emiliano Batiancila, Canuto Lim, Felipe de Leon, Vicente Kyamko, Marciano Camacho, Saturnino Abecia, Marciano Peñaranda; and Gardeopatra Quijano, winner of the CCP Gawad Prize for Regional Literature (1993). At the center of this group was the prolific Aglipayan bishop Fernando Buyser, who invented the sonnet form called Sonanoy. Another invention was Diosdado Alesna`s Siniloy, which consists of one or two lines of amphibrach. He used the language of the house and the street. Writer and researcher Dr.
Erlinda Alburo, director of the Center for Cebuano Studies at the University of San Carlos, noted in 2003 in a forum sponsored by the University`s Theater Guild that young writers (those mentioned above) have given a new voice to Cebuano fiction. They introduced modern writing styles, experimented with the Cebuano language, and explored topics never before developed by their predecessors. There is now a growing number of fiction and poetry publications in Cebuano. Early poetic forms include garay (verses), harito (shaman`s prayers), tigmo (riddles), and panultihon (proverbs) as described by the Jesuit Francisco Alzina (1668). The generic form of poetry is balak, characterized by the presence of riddles or metaphors called balaybay or sambingay. Most of the poems are sung, like professional songs and lullabies. Balitaw is a spontaneous poetic debate between man and woman, which is sung and danced at the same time. Spontaneous verification is highly valued, even in a dramatic form called kulilising hari, a variant of the Tagalog Duplo that is usually performed at funeral vigils.
Some experts qualify this idea by going further in history. When Tagalog became the basis of Filipino, the national language, cebuano`s literary work was suppressed. However, it also generated a reaction that made Balak – and all other literary forms in the same language, such as Sugilanon (short story) – what he is known for today. Foreign historians such as William Scott have conclusively proven that the book is a popular Visayan tradition. Panay has hinilavod as the oldest and longest epic. Hypotheses A contemporary theory based on a study of genetic markers in today`s populations that the Austronesians of Taiwan populated the Luzon region and moved south to the Visayas, Borneo, Indonesia, then the Pacific Islands and the eastern Indian Ocean. However, the study may not explain the migrations between islands that are also possible, such as Tagalog migration to Luzon. Cebuano literature refers to the oral and written literature of cebuano speakers, the native language of a quarter of the country`s population living in Cebu, Bohol, Siquijor, Negros Oriental and parts of Leyte and Mindanao. As such, it is an important part of Philippine literature. Balak`s departure from his traditional roots is the result of many factors – but none is as clear as the political development of the world surrounding the literary form. Reading traditional Cebuano poetry, one can identify the characteristics and principles of the pre-colonial Cebuano-speaking people – practicality and social cohesion through personal reflection.
When Spanish colonization washed up on the Philippine coasts, these aspects of pragmatic and social communication between Cebuano societies were adapted to the social, political, and cultural norms imposed by the Spanish. For example, during the Spanish colonization, the written balak that was produced was largely in the form of prayers to the Virgin Mary. Instead of the parables and metaphors present through the Sambingay or the narrative in the form of parables of Cebuano folk poetry, the balak of that time focused on religiosity and praise. Merlie Alunan, an award-winning leyte-based author and poet, explains this and explains how contemporary balak differs from other types of poetry: “[Unlike speakers and writers of the main languages established by law (English and Filipino), Cebuano writers did not have the privilege of state support and are more likely to be discriminated against. [This is shown by how] For the most part, Cebuano literature was not part of the literature we study in school. For generations, all regional languages have suffered from this prejudice. She points out that Cebuano culture and literature are particularly unique today because of their resilient nature – what she calls the “rising” Visaya languages. With the dissemination of publications, e.B. Bag-ong Kusog, Nasud and Babaye, more and more poets emerged, who produced about 13,000 poems before the war. “Hikalimtan” by Vicente Ranudo? (1906) and “Pag-usara” (1922) became models of metric precision and balanced structure, as found in traditional Cebuano poetry. His speech of courtly love and sublime tone will be reproduced in the poems of Amando Osorio, Escolastic Morre, Tomas Bagyo, Pantaleon Kardenas, Vicente Padriga and others. Alunan encourages all Filipinos to learn Bisaya, saying, “Only for those who think they don`t have to learn another Filipino language because they already speak the local language and who force Bisaya to abandon its language for them to understand – Alkanse mo.
Kasabot mi ninyo pero kamo di kasabot namo. [––you are on the losing side. We understand you, but you don`t.] Imagine what you`re missing. The National Writers` Workshop every October and the Iligan National Writers` Workshop every summer have reserved places for Cebuano writers. In each edition of these workshops, there are works by Cebuano that are dissected or discussed by the panelists. In 1998, the Carlos Palanca Memorial Prizes for Literature opened the Cebuano Literature category. The Visayas are one of the three most important geographical divisions in the Philippines, along with Mindanao and Luzon. It consists of several islands that mainly surround the Visayas Sea. Its population is called Visayans.
Most, if not all, of these writers participated in the annual Cornelio Faigao Memorial Writers` Workshop, organized since 1984 by the Cebuano Study Center of the University of San Carlos. These workshops, in which cebuano authors can participate a few times as fellows and as observers as often as they wish, offer young and old, men and women, a place for the exchange of works and the discussion of problems. In the absence of a regular paragraph, they organize formal and informal poetry readings with different audiences. BATHALAD, WILA and Tarantula organize workshops both for their own members and for much younger writers in high schools and colleges. Groups of writers have certainly contributed to literary growth, especially the Lubas sa Dagang Bisaya (LUDABI) and Bathalan-ong Halad sa Dagang (BATHALAD), which have chapters in Mindanao. The latter is an offshoot of the first er, which was once led by Marcel Navarra, the “father of modern news in Cebuano”. By regularly sponsoring workshops and competitions and publishing their results and contributions, these groups encouraged young writers to start writing and older writers to change their style and attitude. Some of the most anthologized members of BATHALAD are Gremer Chan Reyes, Ernesto Lariosa, Temistokles Adlawan, Pantaleon Auman and Rene Amper. Amper, who wrote in English, is accompanied by Simeon Dumdum Jr., Vicente Bandillo, Melito Baclay, Ester Tapia and others who now also write in Cebuano. Like this second group of bilingual writers, many other Cebuanos began in campus newspapers, such as poets Robert Pableo Lim, Don Pagusara, Leo Bob Flores, and Rex Fernandez in the 70s and 80s; as well as the most recent harvest consisting of Mike Obenieta, Adonis Durado and Januar Yap, who are members of the tarantula group.